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Active Faults: Terminology, Research Advances, and Thinking on Some Problems(PDF)


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Active Faults: Terminology, Research Advances, and Thinking on Some Problems
WU Zhong-hai
Key Laboratory of Neotectonic Movement and Geohazard of Ministry of Land and Resources, Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
active fault neotectonics active tectonics seismogeology earthquake hazard assessment geohazard tectonic system
Neotectonics and active tectonics are sub-disciplines of tectonics that study the process of recent tectonic deformation and tectonic geomorphic evolution on the earth. They are also the main content and foundation of seismic geological work, and active faults are the most important structural manifestation and research object. The research results of active faults are often the important basis for earthquake forecast and prediction, urban and rural earthquake prevention and disaster reduction and important engineering planning and design to effectively avoid the geological disasters of active faults. Understanding and studying the time scale of active faults is closely related to the geodynamic background of specific areas from the perspective of neotectonics. It focuses more on geological structural processes from 100 ka to 1 000 ka, emphasizing past and present fault activities. The active tectonics pays the most attention to the geological and geomorphological processes since 100-150 ka ago, and emphasizes the understanding and evaluation of current and future fault activities, so it is the focus of seismic risk assessment. Recent advances in active fault research have shown that the rapid development and application of quaternary chronology, open space observation and geographic information systems greatly improve the level and accuracy of quantitative research on neotectonic evolution, tectonic geomorphology, fault activity and paleoearthquake, and promote the digitization and sharing of active fault data, and further improve the reliability and accuracy of seismic risk assessment. However, in the regions with high density of active faults and complex active tectonic systems, the basic work of neotectonics and active tectonics for seismic hazard assessment needs to be further strengthened. Especially with the help of high-precision remote sensing technology and neotectonics dating method, a rapid and effective regional active fault survey can be producted, and the degree of standardization and quantification of the investigation of active faults can be improved, and the great importance to the comprehensive research of active tectonic systems can be attached, so as to prevent earthquake geological disaster to lay solid geological foundation. At the same time, it is necessary to distinguish the relationship between fault activity and risk, and pay attention to the problem of strong earthquake risk of stable continental regions and the faults with low slip rate.




Last Update: 2018-12-06