必须声明标量变量 "@Script_ID"。 大气生物气溶胶的源排放与源解析研究进展-《地球科学与环境学报》
|本期目录/Table of Contents|

 LI Yan-peng,MA Tian-feng,DU Sheng-li,et al.Review on Source Emission and Source Identification of Bioaerosols in the Atmosphere[J].Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment,2021,43(02):315-331.[doi:10.19814/j.jese.2020.11018]





Review on Source Emission and Source Identification of Bioaerosols in the Atmosphere
(1. 长安大学 水利与环境学院,陕西 西安 710054; 2. 长安大学 旱区地下水文与生态效应教育部重点实验室,陕西 西安 710054)
LI Yan-peng12 MA Tian-feng1 DU Sheng-li1 XIE Wen-wen1 ZHANG Hao-yue1 XIE Zheng-sheng1
(1. School of Water and Environment, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710054, Shaanxi, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region of Ministry of Education, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710054, Shaanxi, China)
生物气溶胶 源排放 源解析 生物地理学 群落结构 土地利用类型 远距离输送 健康效应
bioaerosol source emission source identification biogeography community struc-ture land-use type long-distance transport health effect
Recent pandemic outbreak of the corona-virus disease 2019(COVID-19)has raised widespread concerns about the importance of the bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are an important part of atmospheric aerosols. Due to its physico-chemical properties and inherent biological characteristics, bioaerosols play a key role in global ecosystem, climate change, air quality and public health. A large number of studies have been focused on the sampling and detection techniques of bioaerosols, disinfection protection, effects on health and environment. However, little is known about the source characteristics of bioaerosols. Therefore, the research status of airborne microbes source was focused, and the progress on the emission characteristics of natural and anthropogenic source of bioaerosols in the past 20 years was comprehensively summarized. Combined with our study, the main factors affecting the source emission and transport process were also highlighted, such as biogeographic regions, land-use types, and environmental factors. Subsequently, the various source analysis methods of current bioaerosols were discussed. Finally, the future work prospects of bioaerosols source characteristics were prospected. It is expected to provide reference for in-depth understanding of the source and transmission change mechanism of bioaerosols, and to better evaluate the level of atmospheric microbial pollution and monitor the aerosol transmission of pathogens.


[1] SMETS W,MORETTI S,DENYS S,et al.Airborne Bacteria in the Atmosphere:Presence,Purpose,and Potential[J].Atmospheric Environment,2016,139:214-221.
[2] 祁建华,高会旺.生物气溶胶研究进展:环境与气候效应[J].生态环境,2006,15(4):854-861.
QI Jian-hua,GAO Hui-wang.Environment and Climate Effect of Bioaerosol:A Review[J].Ecology and Environment,2006,15(4):854-861.
[3] RODO X,BALLESTER J,CAYAN D,et al.Association of Kawasaki Disease with Tropospheric Wind Patterns[J].Scientific Reports,2011,1:152.
[4] BURROWS S M,ELBERT W,LAWRENCE M G,et al.Bacteria in the Global Atmosphere Part 1:Review and Synthesis of Literature Data for Different Ecosystems[J].Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics,2009,9(23):9263-9280.
[5] 宋 璐,王 灿,孟 格,等.气载致病微生物和空气消毒技术[J].中国给水排水,2020,36(6):37-44.
SONG Lu,WANG Can,MENG Ge,et al.Airborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Air Disinfection Technologies[J].China Water and Wastewater,2020,36(6):37-44.
[6] 石广玉,檀赛春,陈 彬.沙尘和生物气溶胶的环境和气候效应[J].大气科学,2018,42(3):559-569.
SHI Guang-yu,TAN Sai-chun,CHEN Bin.Environmental and Climatic Effects of Mineral Dust and Bioaerosol [J].Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences,2018,42(3):559-569.
[7] 魏文斐,刘立超,陈 彬,等.生物气溶胶及其气候效应[J].中国科学院大学学报,2018,35(3):320-326.
WEI Wen-fei,LIU Li-chao,CHEN Bin,et al.Research on Bioaerosol and Its Climate Effect[J].Journal of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,2018,35(3):320-326.
[8] 高星星,桂海林,陈 艳,等.中国典型地区夏季气溶胶时空分布及其对云和降水的影响[J].气象与环境学报,2020,36(1):11-20.
GAO Xing-xing,GUI Hai-lin,CHEN Yan,et al.Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Aerosols and Its Effects on Cloud and Precipitation During Summer over Typical Regions in China[J].Journal of Meteorology and Environment,2020,36(1):11-20.
[9] 郑云昊,李 菁,陈灏轩,等.生物气溶胶的昨天、今天和明天[J].科学通报,2018,63(10):878-894.
ZHENG Yun-hao,LI Jing,CHEN Hao-xuan,et al.Bioaerosol Research:Yesterday,Today and Tomorrow[J].Chinese Science Bulletin,2018,63(10):878-894.
[10] FRÖHLICH-NOWOISKY J,KAMPF C J,WEBER B,et al.Bioaerosols in the Earth System:Climate,Heal-th,and Ecosystem Interactions[J].Atmospheric Research,2016,182:346-376.
[11] BOWERS R M,CLEMENTS N,EMERSON J B,et al.Seasonal Variability in Bacterial and Fungal Diversity of the Near-surface Atmosphere[J].Environmental Science and Technology,2013,47(21):12097-12106.
[12] BOWERS R M,SULLIVAN A P,COSTELLO E K,et al.Sources of Bacteria in Outdoor Air Across Cities in the Midwestern United States[J].Applied and Environmental Microbiology,2011,77(18):6350-6356.
[13] VERESOGLOU S D,RILLIG M C.Challenging Che-rished Ideas in Mycorrhizal Ecology:The Baylis Postulate[J].New Phytologist,2014,204(1):1-3.
[14] WILLIAM B W,DAVID C C,WIEBE W J.Prokaryotes:The Unseen Majority[J].PNAS,1998,95:6578-6583.
[15] CAO C,JIANG W J,WANG B Y,et al.Inhalable Microorganisms in Beijing's PM2.5 and PM10 Pollutants During a Severe Smog Event[J].Environmental Science and Technology,2014,48(3):1499-1507.
[16] NUÑEZ A,AMO DE PAZ G,RASTROJO A,et al.Temporal Patterns of Variability for Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Diversity in the Urban Air of Madrid(Spain)[J].Atmospheric Environment,2019,217:116972.
[17] QI Y Z,LI Y P,XIE W W,et al.Temporal-spatial Variations of Fungal Composition in PM2.5 and Source Tracking of Airborne Fungi in Mountainous and Urban Regions[J].Science of the Total Environment,2020,708:135027.
[18] JOUNG Y S,GE Z F,BUIE C R.Bioaerosol Generation by Raindrops on Soil[J].Nature Communications,2017,8:14668.
[19] CHO B C,HWANG C Y.Prokaryotic Abundance and 16S rRNA Gene Sequences Detected in Marine Aerosols on the East Sea(Korea)[J].FEMS Microbiology Ecology,2011,76(2):327-341.
[20] HU W,MURATA K,FUKUYAMA S,et al.Concentration and Viability of Airborne Bacteria over the Kuroshio Extension Region in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean:Data from Three Cruises[J].Journal of Geophysical Research:Atmospheres,2017,122(23):12892-12905.
[21] UETAKE J,TOBO Y,UJI Y,et al.Seasonal Changes of Airborne Bacterial Communities over Tokyo and Influence of Local Meteorology[J].Frontiers in Microbiology,2019,10:1572.
[22] HAN H J,WEN H L,ZHOU C M,et al.Bats as Re-servoirs of Severe Emerging Infectious Diseases[J].Virus Research,2015,205:1-6.
[23] SHEREEN M A,KHAN S,KAZMI A,et al.COVID-19 Infection:Origin,Transmission,and Characteristics of Human Coronaviruses[J].Journal of Advanced Research,2020,24:91-98.
[24] LU R,ZHAO X,LI J,et al.Genomic Characterisation and Epidemiology of 2019 Novel Coronavirus:Implications for Virus Origins and Receptor Binding[J].The Lancet,2020,395:565-574.
[25] CHAN J F W,YUAN S,KOK K H,et al.A Familial Cluster of Pneumonia Associated with the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Indicating Person-to-person Transmission:A Study of a Family Cluster[J].The Lancet,2020,395:514-523.
[26] HAGERMAN A D,SOUTH D D,SONDGERATH T C,et al.Temporal and Geographic Distribution of Weather Conditions Favorable to Airborne Spread of Foot-and-mouth Disease in the Coterminous United States[J].Preventive Veterinary Medicine,2018,161:41-49.
[27] BUI V N,NGUYEN T T,NGUYEN-VIET H,et al.Bioaerosol Sampling to Detect Avian Influenza Virus in Hanoi's Largest Live Poultry Market[J].Clinical Infectious Diseases,2019,68(6):972-975.
[28] VORHOLT J A.Microbial Life in the Phyllosphere[J].Nature Reviews Microbiology,2012,10(12):828-840.
[29] LYMPEROPOULOU D S,ADAMS R I,LINDOW S E.Contribution of Vegetation to the Microbial Composition of Nearby Outdoor Air[J].Applied and Environmental Microbiology,2016,82(13):3822-3833.
[30] GOPALAKRISHNAN S,ARIGELA R,GUPTA S K,et al.Dynamic Response of Passive Release of Fungal Spores from Exposure to Air[J].Journal of Aerosol Science,2019,133:37-48.
[31] CARVALHO C R,FERNANDES R C,ALMEIDA CARVALHO G M,et al.Cryptosexuality and the Genetic Diversity Paradox in Coffee Rust,Hemileia Vastatrix[J].Plos One,2011,6(11):e26387.
[32] COSTELLO E K,LAUBER C L,HAMADY M,et al.Bacterial Community Variation in Human Body Habitats Across Space and Time[J].Science,2009,326:1694-1697.
[33] LUCKEY D T.Introduction to Intestinal Microecology[J].American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,1972,25(12):1292-1294.
[34] LINDSLEY W G,BLACHERE F M,THEWLIS R E,et al.Measurements of Airborne Influenza Virus in Aerosol Particles from Human Coughs[J].Plos One,2010,5(11):e15100.
[35] 李晓旭,翁祖峰,曹爱丽,等.室内空气中致病微生物的种类及检测技术概述[J].科学通报,2018,63(21):2116-2127.
LI Xiao-xu,WENG Zu-feng,CAO Ai-li,et al.An Overview About Varieties and Detection Methods of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Indoor Air[J].Chinese Science Bulletin,2018,63(21):2116-2127.
[36] ASADI S,BOUVIER N,WEXLER A S,et al.The Coronavirus Pandemic and Aerosols:Does COVID-19 Transmit via Expiratory Particles?[J].Aersol Science and Technology,2020,54(6):635-638.
[37] VEJERANO E P,MARR L C.Physico-chemical Cha-racteristics of Evaporating Respiratory Fluid Droplets[J].Journal of the Royal Society:Interface,2018,15:20170939.
[38] ZHANG Y X,FENG G H,BI Y,et al.Distribution of Droplet Aerosols Generated by Mouth Coughing and Nose Breathing in an Air-conditioned Room[J].Sustainable Cities and Society,2019,51:101721.
[39] 陈雪琴,李 姗,张明顺,等.生物气溶胶研究进展[J].南京医科大学学报(自然科学版),2020,40(6):783-787,792.
CHEN Xue-qin,LI Shan,ZHANG Ming-shun,et al.Research Progress of Bioaerosols[J].Journal of Nanjing Medical University(Natural Sciences),2020,40(6):783-787,792.
[40] MA J X,QI X,CHEN H X,et al.COVID-19 Patients in Earlier Stages Exhaled Millions of SARS-CoV-2 per Hour[J].Clinical Infectious Diseases,2020,DOI:10.1093/cid/ciaa1283.
[41] DEGOIS J,CLERC F,SIMON X,et al.First Metage-nomic Survey of the Microbial Diversity in Bioaerosols Emitted in Waste Sorting Plants[J].Annals of Work Exposures and Health,2017,61(9):1076-1086.
[42] 马嘉伟,杨凯雄,柴风光,等.生活垃圾填埋场细菌气溶胶粒径分布及种群特征[J].环境科学,2019,40(8):3470-3476.
MA Jia-wei,YANG Kai-xiong,CHAI Feng-guang,et al.Particle Size Distribution and Population Cha-racteristics of Airborne Bacteria Emitted from a Sanitary Landfill Site[J].Environmental Science,2019,40(8):3470-3476.
[43] PAGALILAUAN H A M,PARAOAN C E M,VITAL P G.Detection of Pathogenic Bioaerosols and Occupational Risk in a Philippine Landfill Site[J].Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health,2018,73(2):107-114.
[44] MARTIN E,KAMPFER P,JACKEL U.Quantification and Identification of Culturable Airborne Bacteria from Duck Houses[J].Annals of Occupational Hygiene,2010,54(2):217-227.
[45] THEOFEL C G,WILLIAMS T R,GUTIERREZ E,et al.Microorganisms Move a Short Distance into an Almond Orchard from an Adjacent Upwind Poultry Operation[J].Applied and Environmental Microbiology,2020,86(15):e00573-20.
[46] SKORA J,MATUSIAK K,WOJEWODZKI P,et al.Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms[J].International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,2016,13(2):192.
[47] DAI P Y,SHEN D,TANG Q,et al.PM2.5 from a Broiler Breeding Production System:The Characteristics and Microbial Community Analysis[J].Environmental Pollution,2020,256:113368.
[48] BARBERÁN A,HENLEY J,FIERER N,et al.Structure,Inter-annual Recurrence,and Global-scale Connectivity of Airborne Microbial Communities[J].Science of the Total Environment,2014,487:187-195.
[49] 程 荣,亓 畅,石 磊,等.污水处理设施中微生物气溶胶的产生、传播及风险评估[J].给水排水,2020,56(4):59-69.
CHENG Rong,QI Chang,SHI Lei,et al.Generation,Transmission and Risk Assessment of Microbial Aerosols in Sewage Treatment Facilities[J].Water and Wastewater Engineering,2020,56(4):59-69.
[50] SIALVE B,GALES A,HAMELIN J,et al.Bioaerosol Emissions from Open Microalgal Processes and Their Potential Environmental Impacts:What Can Be Learned from Natural and Anthropogenic Aquatic Environments?[J].Current Opinion in Biotechnology,2015,33:279-286.
[51] XU G S,HAN Y P,LI L,et al.Characterization and Source Analysis of Indoor/Outdoor Culturable Airborne Bacteria in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant[J].Journal of Environmental Sciences,2018,74:71-78.
[52] KOWALSKI M,WOLANY J,PASTUSZKA J S,et al.Characteristics of Airborne Bacteria and Fungi in Some Polish Wastewater Treatment Plants[J].International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology,2017,14(10):2181-2192.
[53] 邱雄辉,李彦鹏,牛铁军,等.城市污水处理厂生成的微生物气溶胶的污染特性[J].环境科学,2012,33(7):2191-2196.
QIU Xiong-hui,LI Yan-peng,NIU Tie-jun,et al.Pollution Characteristics of Microbial Aerosols Generated from a Municipal Sewage Treatment Plan[J].Environmental Science,2012,33(7):2191-2196.
[54] GB/T 18883—2002,室内空气质量标准[S].
GB/T 18883—2002,Indoor Air Quality Standard[S].
[55] 张 婧,夏立江,杜文利,等.垃圾填埋场空气微生物浓度的时空分布特征[J].农业环境科学学报,2009,28(6):1332-1336.
ZHANG Jing,XIA Li-jiang,DU Wen-li,et al.Time-space Distribution Characteristics of Airborne Mic-robes' Concentration in Municipal Landfill Site[J].Journal of Agro-environment Science,2009,28(6):1332-1336.
[56] 许鸿飞,刘 婷,李 露,等.封场后垃圾填埋场的生物气溶胶浓度及粒径分布[J].环境科学与技术,2016,39(12):124-127.
XU Hong-fei,LIU Ting,LI Lu,et al.Concentration and Size Distribution of Bioaerosols in a Closed Landfill[J].Environmental Science and Technology,2016,39(12):124-127.
[57] MCEACHRAN A D,BLACKWELL B R,HANSON J D,et al.Antibiotics,Bacteria,and Antibiotic Resistance Genes:Aerial Transport from Cattle Feed Yards via Particulate Matter[J].Environmental Health Perspect,2015,123(4):337-343.
[58] KUMARI P,WOO C,YAMAMOTO N,et al.Variations in Abundance,Diversity and Community Composition of Airborne Fungi in Swine Houses Across Seasons[J].Scientific Reports,2016,6:37929.
[59] FAN H Q,LI X Y,DENG J H,et al.Time-dependent Size-resolved Bacterial and Fungal Aerosols in Beijing Subway[J].Aerosol and Air Quality Research,2017,17(3):799-809.
[60] LU R,LI Y P,LI W X,et al.Bacterial Community Structure in Atmospheric Particulate Matters of Different Sizes During the Haze Days in Xi'an,China[J].Science of the Total Environment,2018,637/638:244-252.
[61] KNIGHTS D,KUCZYNSKI J,CHARLSON E S,et al.Bayesian Community-wide Culture-independent Microbial Source Tracking[J].Nature Methods,2011,8(9):761-763.
[62] STEIN A F,DRAXLER R R,ROLPH G D,et al.NOAA's HYSPLIT Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Modeling System[J].Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,2015,96(12):2059-2077.
[63] CÁLIZ J,TRIADÓ-MARGARIT X,CAMARERO L,et al.A Long-term Survey Unveils Strong Seasonal Patterns in the Airborne Microbiome Coupled to Ge-neral and Regional Atmospheric Circulations[J].PNAS,2018,115(48):12229-12234.
[64] MU F F,LI Y P,LU R,et al.Source Identification of Airborne Bacteria in the Mountainous Area and the Urban Areas[J].Atmospheric Research,2020,231:104676.
[65] HU W,WANG Z H,HUANG S,et al.Biological Aerosol Particles in Polluted Regions[J].Current Pollution Reports,2020,6(2):65-89.
[66] CHI X L,TANG Z Y,FANG J Y.Patterns of Phylogenetic Beta Diversity in China's Grasslands in Relation to Geographical and Environmental Distance[J].Basic and Applied Ecology,2014,15(5):416-425.
[67] WANG J M,CHEN C,LI J W,et al.Different Ecological Processes Determined the Alpha and Beta Components of Taxonomic,Functional,and Phylogenetic Diversity for Plant Communities in Dryland Regions of Northwest China[J].PeerJ,2019,6:e62220.
[68] RUNLAN Y,SHUOKUN W,XUELING W,et al.Community Structure Variation Associated with Airborne Particulate Matter at Central South of China During Hazy and Nonhazy Days[J].Atmospheric Pollution Research,2019,10(5):1536-1542.
[69] GOU H G,LU J J,LI S M,et al.Assessment of Microbial Communities in PM1 and PM10 of Urumqi During Winter[J].Environmental Pollution,2016,214:202-210.
[70] DU P,DU R,REN W,et al.Seasonal Variation Cha-racteristic of Inhalable Microbial Communities in PM2.5 in Beijing City,China[J].Science of the Total Environment,2018,610/611:308-315.
[71] XU C H,WEI M H,CHEN J M,et al.Bacterial Cha-racterization in Ambient Submicron Particles During Severe Haze Episodes at Ji'nan,China[J].Science of the Total Environment,2017,580:188-196.
[72] LI W L,YANG J S,ZHANG D Z,et al.Concentration and Community of Airborne Bacteria in Response to Cyclicalhaze Events During the Fall and Midwinter in Beijing,China[J].Frontiers in Microbiology,2018,9:1741.
[73] GENITSARIS S,STEFANIDOU N,KATSIAPI M,et al.Variability of Airborne Bacteria in an Urban Mediterranean Area(Thessaloniki,Greece)[J].Atmospheric Environment,2017,157:101-110.
[74] TANAKA D,SATO K,GOTO M,et al.Airborne Microbial Communities at High-altitude and Suburban Sites in Toyama,Japan Suggest a New Perspective for Bioprospecting[J].Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,2019,7:12.
[75] XU C H,WEI M,CHEN J M,et al.Profile of Inhalable Bacteria in PM2.5 at Mt.Tai,China:Abundance,Community,and Influence of Air Mass Trajectories[J].Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety,2019,168:110-119.
[76] MA M M,ZHEN Y,MI T Z.Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Bioaerosols over Northern Chinese Marginal Seas and the Northwestern Pacific Ocean in Spring[J].Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology,2019,58(4):903-917.
[77] NEMERGUT D R,COSTELLO E K,HAMADY M,et al.Global Patterns in the Biogeography of Bacterial Taxa[J].Environmental Microbiology,2011,13(1):135-144.
[78] 谢雯文,路 瑞,慕飞飞,等.西安市秋冬季市区与山区微生物气溶胶组成特征及来源[J].环境科学,2020,41(5):2044-2049.
XIE Wen-wen,LU Rui,MU Fei-fei,et al.Characteristics and Sources of Microbial Aerosols in Urban and Mountainous Areas in Autumn and Winter in Xi'an,China[J].Environmental Science,2020,41(5):2044-2049.
[79] BALYAN P,DAS S,GHOSH C,et al.Spatial Variation of Biogenic Aerosols at Different Land Use Configurations in Urban Delhi[J].International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences,2017,12(5):731-744.
[80] ABD AZIZ A,LEE K,PARK B,et al.Comparative Study of the Airborne Microbial Communities and Their Functional Composition in Fine Particulate Matter(PM2.5)Under Non-extreme and Extreme PM2.5 Conditions[J].Atmospheric Environment,2018,194:82-92.
[81] BOWERS R M,MCLETCHIE S,KNIGHT R,et al.Spatial Variability in Airborne Bacterial Communities Across Land-use Types and Their Relationship to the Bacterial Communities of Potential Source Environments[J].The ISME Journal,2011,5(4):601-612.
[82] BALYAN P,GHOSH C,DAS S,et al.Spatio-temporal Characterisation of Bioaerosols at Diverse Outdoor Land-use Sites in an Urban Environment[J].Aerobiologia,2020,36(1):77-81.
[83] PELLISSIER L,OPPLIGER A,HIRZEL A H,et al.Airborne and Grain Dust Fungal Community Compositions are Shaped Regionally by Plant Genotypes and Farming Practices[J].Applied and Environmental Microbiology,2016,82(7):2121-2131.
[84] JAHNE M A,ROGERS S W,HOLSEN T M,et al.Bioaerosol Deposition to Food Crops near Manure Application:Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment[J].Journal of Environmental Quality,2016,45(2):666-674.
[85] REDFORD A J,BOWERS R M,KNIGHT R,et al.The Ecology of the Phyllosphere:Geographic and Phylogenetic Variability in the Distribution of Bacte-ria on Tree Leaves[J].Environmental Microbiology,2010,12(11):2885-2893.
[86] DESPRÉS V,NOWOISKY J,KLOSE M,et al.Molecular Genetics and Diversity of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Urban,Rural,and High-alpine Air[J].Biogeosciences Discussions,2007,4(1):349-384.
[87] 李彦鹏,刘鹏霞,谢铮胜,等.霾污染天气大气微生物气溶胶特性的研究进展[J].科学通报,2018,63(10):940-953.
LI Yan-peng,LIU Peng-xia,XIE Zheng-sheng,et al.Recent Research Progress and Perspective of Characteristics of Ambient Bioaerosols During Hazy Pollution in China[J].Chinese Science Bulletin,2018,63(10):940-953.
[88] JONES A M,HARRISON R M.The Effects of Meteorological Factors on Atmospheric Bioaerosol Concentrations:A Review[J].Science of the Total Environment,2004,326(1/2/3):151-180.
[89] KOWALSKI M,PASTUSZKA J S.Effect of Ambient Air Temperature and Solar Radiation on Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Aerosols Concentration in the Urban Environment[J].Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine,2018,25(2):259-261.
[90] KANG S M,HEO K J,LEE B U.Why Does Rain Increase the Concentrations of Environmental Bioaerosols During Monsoon?[J].Aerosol and Air Quality Research,2015,15(6):2320-2324.
[91] 李婉欣,路 瑞,谢铮胜,等.西安市秋冬季不同空气质量下可培养微生物气溶胶浓度和粒径分布[J].环境科学,2017,38(11):4494-4500.
LI Wan-xin,LU Rui,XIE Zheng-sheng,et al.Concentration and Size Distribution Characteristics of Culturable Bioaerosols at Various Air Quality Levels During Fall and Winter in Xi'an,China[J].Environmental Science,2017,38(11):4494-4500.
[92] ZHEN Q,DENG Y,WANG Y Q,et al.Meteorological Factors Had More Impact on Airborne Bacterial Communities than Air Pollutants[J].Science of the Total Environment,2017,601/602:703-712.
[93] XIE Z S,FAN C L,LU R,et al.Characteristics of Ambient Bioaerosols During Haze Episodes in China:A Review[J].Environmental Pollution,2018,243:1930-1942.
[94] GRUIJTHUIJSEN Y K,GRIESHUBER I,STOCKLINGER A,et al.Nitration Enhances the Allergenic Potential of Proteins[J].International Archives of Allergy and Immunology,2006,141(3):265-275.
[95] LIU F B,LAKEY P S,BERKEMEIER T,et al.Atmospheric Protein Chemistry Influenced by Anthropoge-nic Air Pollutants:Nitration and Oligomerization upon Exposure to Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide[J].Faraday Discussions,2017,200:413-427.
[96] REINMUTH-SELZLE K,KAMPF C J,LUCAS K,et al.Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Allergies in the Anthropocene:Abundance,Interaction,and Modification of Allergens and Adjuvants[J].Environmental Science and Technology,2017,51(8):4119-4141.
[97] FAN C L,LI Y P,LIU P X,et al.Characteristics of Airborne Opportunistic Pathogenic Bacteria During Autumn and Winter in Xi'an,China[J].Science of the Total Environment,2019,672:834-845.



收稿日期:2020-11-08; 修回日期:2021-02-20投稿网址:http:∥jese.chd.edu.cn/
基金项目:陕西省自然科学基金项目(2020JM-236); 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0212206)
更新日期/Last Update: 2021-04-15